Periodontology (Gum Diseases)

Periodontology (Gum Diseases)

Periodontology is the branch of dentistry that examines the gingiva and the bone structure surrounding the teeth, diagnoses and treats the diseases that occur in these tissues, and ensures the continuity of the acquired health.

Gum Disease

For a good oral health, the health of the bones and gum tissues, which are responsible for carrying the teeth, is very important as well as the teeth should be caries-free and healthy. Periodontology department deals with the health of gingival tissues, which are of high importance in oral health, and treats gingival diseases.

Gum disease begins with gingivitis, called gingivitis. When gingivist occurs, which is the early period of periodontal diseases, the gums become bleeding, red-looking and swollen. If left untreated, the disease may evolve into periodontitis and cause severe and irreversible damage to the alveolar bone, which is responsible for supporting the gums and teeth.

Periodontitis is the most advanced stage of gingival diseases, and if precautions are taken, the infection can progress and cause tooth loss by causing teeth to shake and even gum recession. In order to prevent these, it is highly important to apply to the periodontology department and to have regular check-ups.

Symptoms of Gum Disease

The most common symptoms of gum disease treated by the periodontology department are:

  • Bleeding.
  • Swelling in the gums.
  • Redness of the gums.
  • Gingival recession and consequent exposure of root surfaces.
  • Sensitivity on exposed root surfaces.
  • Blackness on the gingival margins or between the teeth due to tartar.
  • Inflammation between the gums and teeth.
  • Rocking, elongation, displacement of teeth.
  • Bad odor and taste in the mouth.

Causes of Gum Diseases

While the main cause of periodontal diseases that periodontology diagnoses and treats is bacterial plaque, other causes include smoking, systematic diseases, drug use, pregnancy, diabetes, stress, menopause and AIDS. In addition, delaying dental check-ups causes the progression of these diseases and the loss of the possibility of early treatment.

Treatment of Gum Disease

Periodontal diseases can be treated without the need for surgical interventions in the early diagnosis. After cleaning the tooth and root surface and checking the occlusion (control of the closure of the lower and upper jaw teeth with each other), caries and wisdom teeth are removed, preventing the accumulation of microorganisms, the gingiva adapts to the tooth again, the gingiva is replaced and the tissue pocket is eliminated.

Treatment methods used in gum disease are:

  • Surgical Periodontal Treatments: Surgical interventions are the interventions used in advanced periodontal diseases. In surgical periodontal treatments, tartar in the deep pockets surrounding the teeth is cleaned and these pockets are removed. A smooth and solid root surface is created, and the patient is provided with a gingival surface that can provide easier hygiene. Gingival recessions are treated by repairing with free gingival graft or connective tissue operations.
  • Subgingival Curettage: After the treatment of initial gum disease, if the oral tissue does not heal, the gums are anesthetized using local anesthesia and the inflamed tissues and tartar under the gum are removed from the area.
  • Gingivectomy and Gingivoplasty: It is a surgical intervention performed to give physiological form to the gingiva, to treat fibrotic gingival growths and to correct gingival morphology by using local anesthetic in cases where thickening of the gingival margins is observed.
  • Flap Operation: It is a surgical operation performed to prevent the progression of periodontal diseases and to provide the necessary plaque control to the patient. After the area is anesthetized with local anesthesia, the gingiva is lifted so that the root surfaces and bone are exposed. Inflamed tissues are cleaned, root surfaces are smoothed and necessary bone corrections are made. The graft is used according to the extent of the damage to the bone and the process is completed.

The treatment method to be used in the treatment of gum disease is determined by the dentist's examination and the condition of the disease. With regular check-ups, these diseases can be prevented from recurring.